Tips For The Kitchen

Here is where you can find helpful hints/tips for baking and cooking for those who are missing certain ingredients or want to know an alternative ingredient for certain recipes.

Ask and you shall receive.

Conversions

Temperatures:

Fahrenheit Celsius Gas Mark (Imperial) Description
225 degrees F. 105 degrees C. 1/3 very cool
250 degrees F. 120 degrees C. 1/2
275 degrees F. 130 degrees C. 1 cool
300 degrees F. 150 degrees C. 2 slow/low
325 degrees F. 165 degrees C 3 very moderate
350 degrees F. 180 degrees C. 4 moderate
375 degrees F. 190 degrees C. 5 moderate/moderately hot
400 degrees F. 200 degrees C. 6 moderately hot
425 degrees F. 220 degrees C. 7 hot
450 degrees F. 230 degrees C. 8 hot/very hot
475 degrees F. 245 degrees C. 9 very hot
  • Gas mark 1 is 275° fahrenheit (135° Celsius). Oven temperatures increase by 25°F (13.9°C) each time the gas mark increases by 1.
  • French ovens and recipes often use a scale more closely related to the Celsius temperature: “Thermostat” (abbreviated “Th”), where Thermostat 1 equals 30 °C for conventional ovens, increasing by 30 °C for each whole number along the scale.
  • In Germany, “Stufe” (the German word for “step”) is used for gas cooking temperatures, where Stufe ½ is about 125 °C in a conventional oven, Stufe 1 is about 150 °C, increasing by 25 °C for each subsequent step, up to Stufe 7 at 300 °C.

Dry/Weight Measurements:

Ounces Pounds Metric
1/16 teaspoon a dash
1/8 teaspoon or less a pinch or 6 drops . .5 ml
1/4 teaspoon 15 drops 1 ml
1/2 teaspoon 30 drops 2 ml
1 teaspoon 1/3 tablespoon 1/6 ounce 5 ml
3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon 1/2 ounce 14 grams
1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons 1/2 ounce 14 grams
2 tablespoons 1/8 cup 1 ounce 28 grams
4 tablespoons 1/4 cup 2 ounces 56.7 grams
5 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon 1/3 cup 2.6 ounces 75.6 grams
8 tablespoons 1/2 cup 4 ounces 1/4 pound 113 grams
10 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons 2/3 cup 5.2 ounces 151 grams
12 tablespoons 3/4 cup 6 ounces .375 pound 170 grams
16 tablespoons 1 cup 8 ounces .500 pound or 1/2 pound 225 grams
32 tablespoons 2 cups 16 ounces 1 pound 454 grams
64 tablespoons 4 cups or 1 quart 32 ounces 2 pounds 907 grams

Liquid or Volume Measurements:

jigger or measure 1 1/2 or 1.5 fluid ounces 3 tablespoons 45 ml
1 cup 8 fluid ounces 1/2 pint 16 tablespoons 237 ml
2 cups 16 fluid ounces 1 pint 32 tablespoons 474 ml
4 cups 32 fluid ounces 1 quart 64 tablespoons .946 ml
2 pints 32 fluid ounces 1 quart 4 cups .964 liters
4 quarts 128 fluid ounces 1 gallon 16 cups 3.8 liters
8 quarts 256 fluid ounces or one peck 2 gallons 32 cups 7.5 liters
4 pecks one bushel
dash less than 1/4 teaspoon

Egg Wash:

The basic rule of thumb is 1 tsp of liquid per egg.  You can experiment with adding spices to your egg wash, such as cinnamon or nutmeg, for added flavor and added color.  The part of the egg you use and liquid you add to your egg wash will determine the finished look of the pie crust.

For this result: Make an egg wash with:
Shiny whole egg, salt
Faint Shine whole egg, milk
Matte, golden-brown whole egg, water
Shiny, golden-brown egg yolk, water
Shiny, golden-brown egg yolk, salt
Shiny, dark egg yolk, cream
Crisp, pale egg white
Matte, golden-brown heavy cream or half & half
Faint shine, golden-brown olive oil

Common Ingredient Equivalents:

Butter:
1 stick = 4 ounces = 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup
4 sticks = 16 ounces = 32 tablespoons = 2 cups

Chocolate:
1 ounce = 1/4 cup grated
6 ounces chips = 1 cup chips
1 pound cocoa = 4 cups cocoa

Creams:
Half and half = 1/2 milk + 1/2 cream = 10.5 to 18 percent butterfat
Light cream = 18 percent butterfat
Light whipping cream = 30 to 26 percent butterfat
Heavy cream = whipping cream = 36 percent or more butterfat
Double cream = extra-thick double cream = clotted or Devonshire cream = 42 percent butterfat

Egg:
1 large egg (approximately) = 1 tablespoon yolk + 2 tablespoons white
1 cup = 4 jumbo = 4 to 5 extra-large = 5 large = 5 to 6 medium = 7 small

Flour:
1 pound = 4 cups all-purpose or bread flours = 4 3/4 cups cake flour
1 cup sifted cake flour = 7/8 cup sifted all-purpose
1+ cup self-rising flour = 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour + 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder + 1/2 teaspoon salt

Bulgur: 1 cup = 190 grams
Chickpeas (dried, raw): 1 cup = 190 grams (= 475 grams when cooked)
Cornmeal: 1 cup = 165 grams
Couscous: 1 cup = 165 grams
Dried beans: 1 cup = 180 grams
Elbow macaroni: 1 cup = 150 grams
Flour, all-purpose or whole wheat: 1 cup = 120 grams
Pearl tapioca: 1 cup = 180 grams
Polenta: 1 cup = 160 grams
Quinoa: 1 cup = 190 grams
Rice, basmati: 1 cup = 180 grams
Rice, short-grain: 1 cup = 195 grams
Rolled oats: 1 cup = 100 grams

Lemon:
1 lemon = 1 to 3 tablespoons juice, 1 to 1 1/2 teaspoons grated zest
4 large lemons = 1 cup juice = 1/4 cup grated zest

Onion:
1 pound = 2 1/2 cups sliced or chopped

Sugar:
1 pound white = 2 cups white = 454 grams
1 pound packed brown = 2 1/4 cups packed brown
1 cup packed brown = 1 cup white
1 pound superfine sugar = 1 cup white sugar = 190 grams
1 pound powdered sugar = 3 1/2 to 4 cups
1 3/4 cups powdered sugar = 1 cup white sugar
1 cup powdered sugar = 80 grams
100 grams white sugar = 1/2 cup

Yeast:
1 cake = 3/5 ounce = 1 packet dry = 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 teaspoons dry

Nuts etc.:
Almonds, shelled, whole, blanched: 1 cup = 125 grams
Almonds, sliced: 1 cup = 70 grams
Almond meal (a.k.a. ground almonds): 1 cup = 100 grams
Almond butter/purée: 1 cup = 240 grams
Cashews, shelled, whole: 1 cup = 130 grams
Chestnuts, shelled, cooked: 1 cup = 130 grams
Hazelnuts, shelled, whole: 1 cup = 120 grams
Macadamia nuts, shelled, whole: 1 cup = 125 grams
Nut butter: 1 cup = 240 grams
Pistachios: 1 cup = 125 grams
Poppy seeds: 1 cup = 145 grams
Walnuts, shelled, halves: 1 cup = 100 grams

Fruits, vegetables, herbs:
Baby spinach leaves: 1 cup (packed) = 30 grams
Basil: 1 cup (packed) = 20 grams
Blueberries: 1 cup = 190 grams
Carrots, grated: 1 cup (loosely packed) = 90 grams
Fava beans, shelled: 1 cup = 120 grams
Green peas, shelled: 1 cup = 145 grams
Hibiscus flowers, dried, semi-crushed, lightly packed: 1 cup = 40 grams
Mâche: 1 cup (packed) = 20 grams
Raisins: 1 cup = 150 grams
Raspberries: 1 cup = 125 grams
Rocket: 1 cup (packed) = 25 grams
Strawberries: 1 cup (small strawberries, or large strawberries, sliced) = 125 grams
Young salad greens: 1 cup (packed) = 20 grams

Other:
Agar-agar: 1 teaspoon = 2 grams
Baby shrimp, shelled, cooked: 1 cup = 100 grams
Capers: 1 cup = 120 grams
Dried bread crumbs: 1 cup = 100 grams
Hibiscus flowers: 1/3 cup = 15 grams
Oil: 1 tablespoon = 9 grams
Olives: 1 cup = 180 grams

Pans and Dishes:
10-inch tart or cake pan = 25-centimeter tart or cake pan
9-inch cake pan = 22-centimeter cake pan
4-inch tartlet mold = 10-centimeter tartlet mold
9-by-13-inches baking dish = 22-by-33-centimeter baking dish
8-by-8-inches baking dish = 20-by-20-centimeter baking dish
6-ounce ramekin = 180-mL ramekin
9-by-5-inches loaf pan = 23-by-12-centimeter loaf pan = 8 cups or 2 liters in capacity

Ingredient Substitutes

Smoke Points of Various Fats

Glossary

2 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. profollica official site
    Feb 09, 2013 @ 20:23:57

    Superb writing skills, did you go to college for this?

    Reply

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